EFFECTS OF NITROGEN LEVELS ON YIELD AND NITROGEN UTILIZATION EFFICIENCIES OF TWO RICE VARIETIES IN KIRINYAGA COUNTY, KENYA

  • Joseph Patrick Gweyi-Onyango Kenyatta University
Keywords: nitrogen partitioning, remobilization, N mining, N export, nitrogen agronomic efficiency

Abstract

Nitrogen is one of the most limiting elements in crop production and this is even worse in the tropics where the farmers do not have the capacity to purchase the inputs. Ammonium and urea forms of nitrogen have traditionally been applied in paddy rice. Despite the anaerobic conditions expected in flooded rice, conversion of ammonium to nitrate has been reported. Nitrate easily gets leached and lost. The other loss pathway is volatilization, leading to emissions of ammonia gas. There is need for judicious application of N to ensure proper utilization without incurring the losses. This can be assessed by determination of nitrogen use efficiencies. The current study evaluated the utilization efficiencies of two rice varieties (Nerica 4 and Nerica 10) supplied with four rates of nitrogen in form of urea. The experiment was laid in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with split plot arrangements, where two varieties represented the main plot while the nitrogen rates constituted the sub-plots. The experiment was replicated three times. The growth parameters determined were plant height, panicle length, shoot dry weight, root dry weight, Harvest index and grain weight. The grain and straw nitrogen contents were determined by Kjeldahl method and the following utilization efficiencies were computed: Nitrogen Use Efficiencies (NUE), Nitrogen Agronomic Efficiency (NAE), Nitrogen Harvesting Index and Nitrogen partitioning in grain and straw. Analysis of variance was performed using Statistical Analysis System version 9.00. Means were separated using least significance difference at a significance level of 5%. Associations between variables were determined by regression analyses. The results revealed significant differences in shoot and root dry weights, grain weight and plant height with Nerica 4 being superior in these characters compared to Nerica 10. The NHIs were not affected by nitrogen rates in both varieties though all of them were generally high (more than 0.6). The NAE ranged between 23-25% which is a fairly good indicators of better N utilization. The NUE ranged between 25-158, with majority being above 100 which is also an indication of low soil nitrogen. Moreso, the partitioning of the N to the grain was threefold or more in the grain compared to the straw. The association between N rates and grain yields were positive. Whereas the association was polynomial for Nerica 4, it was linear for Nerica 10. We conclude that more N can still be applied to Nerica 10 for increased yield since the N levels supplied were still sub-optimal. For Nerica 4 there could have been other factors such as low temperatures that contributed to low yields.

Author Biography

Joseph Patrick Gweyi-Onyango, Kenyatta University

Department of Agricultural Science and Technology, Kenyatta University

P O Box 43844-00100 Nairobi, Kenya

References

Dobermann A (2005). Nitrogen Use Efficiency – State of The Art. IFA International Workshop on Enhanced-Efficiency Fertilizers Frankfurt, Germany, 28-30 June 2005 Pp 1-16
Bremner, J. M (1996). Nitrogen-Total. In Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 3, Chemical Methods; Sparks, D. L., Ed.; Soil Science Society of America, American Society of Agronomy: Madison, WI, pp 1085–1121.
Cassman, K.G., Dobermann, A., Walters, D.T., Yang, H.S., 2003. Meeting cereal demand while protecting natural resources and improving environmental quality. Ann. Rev. Environ. Resource. 28, 315–358
Cassman KG, Gines GC, Dizon MA, Samson M and Alcartara JM (1996). Nitrogen-use efficiency in tropical lowland rice systems: Contributions from indigenous and applied nitrogen: Field Crop Research 47:1-12.
Cassman, K.G, Peng S, Olk D.C, Ladha J.K, Reichardt W, Dobermann A., and Singh U (1998). Opportunities for increased nitrogen-use effi ciency from improved resource management in irrigated rice systems. Field Crop Res. 56:7–39.
Cassman, K. A, Dobermann and D. Walters (2002). Agroecosystems, nitrogen use efficiency and nitrogen management. Ambio 31: 132–14
Chen S, Wang D, Xu C, Ji C, Zhang X, Zhao X1, Zhang X, Chauhan B (2014). Responses of Super Rice (Oryza sativa L.) to Different Planting Methods for Grain Yield and Nitrogen-Use Efficiency in the Single Cropping Season. PLoS ONE 9(8): e104950. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0104950
Cu RM, Mew TW, Cassman KG, Teng PS. 1996. Effect of sheath blight on yield in tropical, intensive rice production system. Plant Disease 80:1103–1108.
Fageria NK. 2014. Nitrogen harvest index and its association with crop yields. Journal of Plant Nutrition 37:795–810.
Fageria N. K., and M. P Barbosa Filho. (2001). Nitrogen use efficiency in lowland rice genotypes. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 32: 2079–2089.
Fageria, N. K and V. C. Baligar. (2003). Fertility management of tropical acid soils for sustainable crop production. In: Handbook of Soil Acidity, ed. Z. Rengel, pp. 359–385. New York: Marcel Dekker.
Fawcett, J. A. 1980. Nitrogen harvest index variation within two Avena species. M.S. Thesis, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USA.
Fergusson A G (1999). Grain Yield and Quality of Malting Barley (Hordeum Vulgare L.) as Influenced by Nitrogen. MSc Thesis. Lincoln University Canterbury New Zealand
Lemaire G and Gastal F (1997). Nitrogen uptake and distribution in plant canopies. In: Lemaire, G. (Ed.), Diagnosis of the Nitrogen Status in Crops. Springer–Verlag, Berlin, pp. 3–43
Li, Q (1997). Fertilizer Issues in the Sustainable Development of China Agriculture. Jiangxi Science and Technology Press, China
Li, R (2000). Efficiency and regulation of fertilizer nitrogen in high-yield farmland: a case study on rice and wheat double maturing system agriculture area of Tai lake for deducing to Jiangsu Province. Ph.D. Dissertation. China Agricultural University, Beijing, China
Marler J B, Wallin J R (2006). ‘Human health, the nutritional quality of harvested food and sustainable farming systems.’ (Nutrition Security Institute: Bellevue)
Masso C, Baijukya F, Ebanyat P, Bouaziz S, Wendt J, Bekunda M, and Vanlauwe B (2017). Dilemma of nitrogen management for future food security in sub-Saharan Africa – a review. Soil Research. 55: 425–434
Mikkelsen, D.S. 1987. Nitrogen budgets in flooded soils used for rice production. Plant Soil 100:71–97.
Muchow, R.C.(1998). Nitrogen Utilization Efficiency in corn and Sorghum. Field Crops Res.56.209-216.
Njinju, S M, Samejima H, Katsura K, Kikuta M, Gweyi-Onyango J P, Kimani J M., Yamauchi A and Makihara D (2018). Grain yield responses of lowland rice varieties to increased amount of nitrogen fertilizer under tropical highland conditions in central Kenya. Plant Production Science. 21:2, 59-70
Novoa, R and Loomis R S (1981) Nitrogen and plant production. Plant Soil 58, 177–204.
Ntinyari W (2018). Evaluation of Nutrient Management for Improved Nitrogen Use and Agronomic Efficiencies in Rice (Oryza Sativa L.) in Kisumu and Kirinyaga Counties, Kenya. Unpublished MSc Thesis, Kenyatta University.
Peng S, Garcia, F V, Laza, R C, Sanico A L, Visperas R. M and Cassman K. G. (1996). Increased N-use efficiency using a chlorophyll meter on high-yielding irrigated rice. Field Crops Research, 47(2-3), 243-252.
Peng S, Huang J, Zhong X, Yang J, Wang, Zou, Y, Zhang F, Zhu Q, Buresh R, Witt C, (2002) Challenge and opportunity in improving fertilizer-nitrogen use efficiency of irrigated rice in China. Agric. Sci. Chin. 1 (7), 776–785.
Pham, Q D, Abe A, Hirano Sagawa M S and Kuroda E (2004). Analysis of lodging-resistant characteristics of different rice genotypes grown under the standard and nitrogen-free basal dressing accompanied with sparse planting density practices. Plant Prod. Sci. 7: 243–251.
Rahman M M, Islam M A, Azirui M S and Boyce A N (2018). Agronomic and Nitrogen Recovery Efficiency of Rice Under Tropical Conditions as Affected by Nitrogen Fertilizer and Legume Crop Rotation. The Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences, 24(3) 891-896.
Rattunde, H F, and Frey K. J (1986). Nitrogen harvest index in oats: Its repeatability and association with adaptation. Crop Science 26: 606–610.
Vinod KK and Heuber S (2012). Applications towards nitrogen and phosphorus-efficient rice. AOB Plants.
Wang G H, Dobermann A, Witt C, Sun, Q Z, Fu R X (2001). Performance of site-specific nutrient management for irrigated rice in south- east China. Agron. J. 93, 869–878.
Wang HY, Zhou JM. (2014). Calculation of real fertilizer use efficiency and discussion on fertilization strategies. Acta Pedologica Sinica. 51(2):10-9.
Wekha N. Wafula, Korir K. Nicholas, Ojulong F. Henry, Moses Siambi and Joseph P. Gweyi-Onyango (2017). Finger millet (Eleusine coracana L.) grain yield and yield components as influenced by phosphorus application and variety in Western Kenya. Tropical Plant research: An Agricultural Journal. 3(3): 673–680, 2016 DOI: 10.22271/tpr.2016.v3.i3.088
Yesuf E, and Balcha A. (2014). Effect of nitrogen application on grain yield and nitrogen efficiency of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Asian Journal of Crop Science, 6(3), 273-280.
Yoshida S (1981). International Fundamentals of Rice Crop Science. International Rice Research Institute, Los Banos, Philippines, p.296.
Zhu, Z (1997). Fate and management of fertilizer nitrogen in agro-ecosys- tems. In: Zhu, Z., Wen, Q., Freney, J.R. (Eds.), Nitrogen in Soils of China. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, pp. 239–279.
Published
2018-09-20
How to Cite
Gweyi-Onyango, J. (2018). EFFECTS OF NITROGEN LEVELS ON YIELD AND NITROGEN UTILIZATION EFFICIENCIES OF TWO RICE VARIETIES IN KIRINYAGA COUNTY, KENYA. African Journal of Horticultural Science, 14, 23-34. Retrieved from http://www.hakenya.net/ajhs/index.php/ajhs/article/view/200
Section
Articles