TYPE AND DISTRIBUTION OF URBAN AND PERI-URBAN AGRICULTURE PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES IN NAIROBI COUNTY, KENYA
Urban and peri-urban agriculture (UPUA) has direct positive impact on farming households accounting for income-earning or food-producing activities. The type of production technology and location influences food safety and space usage. Little is known how UPUA farmers utilize different crop production technologies and their distribution in Nairobi County. The objectives of this study were therefore to identify type of production technologies utilized by UPUA farmers in Nairobi County; and to determine how the production technologies were distributed within the districts of Nairobi County. A survey study with purposive sampling utilizing a structured questionnaire was carried out in the urban and peri-urban districts of Nairobi County. Data was collected on socio-economic characteristics, crop production technologies, land tenure and land size. Data was analysed descriptively and chi-square and Fishers T- tests were performed. Farmers in peri-urban areas utilized more of the identified eleven technologies than those in urban districts except rooftop and balcony gardens. Open field was the most utilized crop production technology (25.9%) and was significantly (P=.033) more in use at the peri-urban areas. Multi-storey garden technology was more in use in the urban areas. Open field (24.9%), multi-storey garden (16.4%) and moist-bed garden (11.9%) were the most utilized technologies for crop production by male-headed households. Female-headed households mostly utilized open field (2.3%) and micro-garden (1.7%) technologies. Small plots (1/2 to 1 acre) were heavily relied on for crop production (41%). Institutional land constituted the most significant (P=.012) available land (54.2%) for utilizing most of the crop production technologies. It was available both in urban (26.5%) and Peri-urban (27.7%) areas. Personal land was also available but significantly higher (p = 0.023) in Peri-urban (14.2%) than in urban areas (2.2%). These research findings will supplement to Nairobi City planners’ decision making process concerning urban and peri-urban agriculture in regard to land use allocation. . Adoption of improved crop production technologies and forming of farmer groups to bargain for idle spaces could be embraced for increased urban and peri-urban agriculture.
Camara, B., 2013. The dynamics of land tenure systems in the Niger basin, Mali. Africa, 83(1), pp.78-99.
Cheserem, M., 2011. Kenya: County fact sheets. Nairobi, Kenya: Commission on Revenue Allocation.
Cofie, O., Larbi, T.O., Danso, G.I., Abraham, E.I., Kufogbe, S.K. and Obiri-Opareh, N., 2008. Urban Agriculture in Accra Metropolis: Dimensions and Implications for urban Development. In: In: Parot, L. Njoya, A. Assogba-Komlan. F. Kahane, R. Ba Diao M, Havard, M. Editors: Agricultures et dévelopment urbain en Afrique subsaharienne. Governance et approvisionnement des villes.
Cornish, G.A. and Kielen, N.C., 2004. Wastewater irrigation—hazard or lifeline? Empirical results from Nairobi, Kenya and Kumasi, Ghana. Wastewater use in irrigated agriculture, pp.69-79.
FAO, 2013. The State of Food and Agriculture: Food systems for better nutrition. FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS, Rome.
Foeken, D.W.J. and Mboganie-Mwangi, A., 2000. Increasing food security through urban farming in Nairobi.
Foeken, D.W. and Owuor, S.O., 2008. Farming as a livelihood source for the urban poor of Nakuru, Kenya. Geoforum, 39(6), pp.1978-1990
Gallaher, C.M., Kerr, J.M., Njenga, M., Karanja, N.K. and WinklerPrins, A.M., 2013a. Urban agriculture, social capital, and food security in the Kibera slums of Nairobi, Kenya. Agriculture and human values, 30(3), pp.389-404.
Gallaher, C.M., Mwaniki, D., Njenga, M., Karanja, N.K. and WinklerPrins, A.M., 2013b. Real or perceived: the environmental health risks of urban sack gardening in Kibera slums of Nairobi, Kenya. EcoHealth, 10(1), pp.9-20.
Gallaher, C.M., WinklerPrins, A.M., Njenga, M. and Karanja, N.K., 2015. Creating space: Sack gardening as a livelihood strategy in the Kibera slums of Nairobi, Kenya. Journal of agriculture, food systems, and community development, 5(2), pp.155-173.
Haregeweyn, N., Fikadu, G., Tsunekawa, A., Tsubo, M. and Meshesha, D.T., 2012. The dynamics of urban expansion and its impacts on land use/land cover change and small-scale farmers living near the urban fringe: A case study of Bahir Dar, Ethiopia. Landscape and urban planning, 106(2), pp.149-157.
Hien, W.N., Yok, T.P. and Yu, C., 2007. Study of thermal performance of extensive rooftop greenery systems in the tropical climate. Building and Environment, 42(1), pp.25-54.
Kaluli, J.W., Githuku, C., Home, P. and Mwangi, B.M., 2011. Towards a national policy on wastewater reuse in Kenya. Journal of Agriculture, Science and Technology, 13(1).
Karanja, N.N., Njenga, M., Prain, G., Kangâ, E., Kironchi, G., Githuku, C., Kinyari, P. and Mutua, G.K., 2010. Assessment of environmental and public health hazards in wastewater used for urban agriculture in Nairobi, Kenya. Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems, 12(1), pp.85-97.
Kenya Travel Guide UK, 2013. Kenya travel guide UK [WWW Document]. URL http://www.kenyatravelguideuk.com/nairobi.htm (accessed 8.13.14).
Mutisya, E. and Yarime, M., 2011. Understanding the grassroots dynamics of slums in Nairobi: the dilemma of Kibera informal settlements. Int Trans J Eng Manag Appl Sci Technol, 2(2), pp.197-213.
Njenga, M., Romney, D., Karanja, N., Gathuru, K., Kimani, S., Carsan, S. and Frost, W., 2010. Recycling nutrients from organic wastes in Kenya’s capital city. In African urban harvest(pp. 193-212). Springer, New York, NY.
Nowak, M., 2004. Urban agriculture on the rooftop (Doctoral dissertation, Cornell University).
Orsini, F., Gasperi, D., Marchetti, L., Piovene, C., Draghetti, S., Ramazzotti, S., Bazzocchi, G. and Gianquinto, G., 2014. Exploring the production capacity of rooftop gardens (RTGs) in urban agriculture: the potential impact on food and nutrition security, biodiversity and other ecosystem services in the city of Bologna. Food Security, 6(6), pp.781-792.
Orsini, F., Kahane, R., Nono-Womdim, R. and Gianquinto, G., 2013. Urban agriculture in the developing world: a review. Agronomy for sustainable development, 33(4), pp.695-720.
Pearson, C.J., 2010. Urban agriculture: diverse activities and benefits for city society. International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability, 8(1/2), pp.3-126.
Schmidt, S., 2012. Getting the policy right: urban agriculture in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. International Development Planning Review, 34(2), pp.129-145.
Simiyu, R.R., 2012. I Don'T Tell My Husband about Vegetales Sales: Gender Aspects of Urban Agriculture in Eldoret, Kenya. African Studies Centre.
Simiyu, R.R., 2013, September. Gendered access to and utilization of land by food producers in urban Kenya. In Urban Forum (Vol. 24, No. 3, pp. 325-342). Springer Netherlands.
Specht, K., Siebert, R., Hartmann, I., Freisinger, U.B., Sawicka, M., Werner, A., Thomaier, S., Henckel, D., Walk, H. and Dierich, A., 2014. Urban agriculture of the future: an overview of sustainability aspects of food production in and on buildings. Agriculture and human values, 31(1), pp.33-51.
Thomaier, S., Specht, K., Henckel, D., Dierich, A., Siebert, R., Freisinger, U.B. and Sawicka, M., 2015. Farming in and on urban buildings: Present practice and specific novelties of Zero-Acreage Farming (ZFarming). Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems, 30(1), pp.43-54.
Thuo, A.D.M., 2013. Exploring Land Development Dynamics in Rural-Urban Fringes: A Reflection on Why Agriculture is Being Squeezed Out by Urban Land Uses in the Nairobi Rural–Urban Fringe? International Journal of Rural Management, 9(2), pp.105-134.
UN System Task Team on the Post-2015 UN Development Agenda, 2012. Realizing the Future We Want for All. Report to the Secretary-General.
Wangari, K.M., 2013. Urban Agriculture as an Authentic Urban Land Use in Kenya: A Case Study of Komarock Estate. (Dissertation; University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya)
Copyright for articles published in this journal is retained by the journal. Thus, copyright for material accepted for publication will transfer to the publisher of AJHS journal.