COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON THE NUTRIENT COMPOSITION OF SHADE- DRIED AND SUN-DRIED LEAVES OF ROSSELLE (HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA L.)
Keywords:Recommended Dietary Allowance, Shade-dried leaves, Sun-dried leaves, Hibiscus sabdariffa
Hibiscus sabdariffa, a leafy vegetable consumed extensively in Ghana, provides important source of micronutrients and essential amino acids in diets. Although sun-dried vegetables have been used as alternatives to green vegetables, no study has been done to ascertain the nutritional content against that of shade-dried leaves. This study determined nutritional composition of shade-dried and sun-dried leaves of Hibiscus sabdariffa (Bera) to evaluate the various nutrients supplied, and their abilities to meet the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for various age and physiological groups of people. Sun- and shade-dried leaves of Hibiscus sabdariffa were analyzed for their nutritional content using standard analytical methods. Mean values of protein, carbohydrates, ash, moisture and fibre for sun-dried leaves were 22.7, 42.2, 10.3, 8.1, 8.54 g/100g respectively, for shade-dried leaves, values were 1.6, 7.0, 1.4, 87.1, 1.6 g/100g respectively. Mean values of calcium, Iron, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, and zinc were: sun-dried leaves; 411.0, 20.1, 39.3, 36.5, 54, 1.8 mg/100g; shade dried leaves values were: 65.6, 6.2, 5.6, 4.8, 14.1, 1.4 mg/100g. For RDA of nutrients per 100g sample, sun-dried leaves provided protein in the range of 32.0 206.4 %, carbohydrates 21.5 47.7 % and fibre, 29.4 47.6 %. For shade-dried leaves, protein was 2.3 14.2 %, carbohydrates 3.3 7.3 % and fibre 5.5 8.4 %. Percentage RDA of minerals supplied per 100g sample for various age and physiological groups were; sun-dried leaves, Â Fe (74.6 287.6), Mg (8.7 48.7), Ca (31.6 152.2), P (4.3 19.6), K (770.6 5614.3), Zn (13.5 58.3); shade-dried leaves, Fe (23.9 89.0), Mg (1.1 6.4), Ca (5.0 24.3), P (1.1 5.1), K (110 801.4), Zn (11.0 - 47.7). The study indicates, sun-drying is a better method of preserving Hibiscus sabdariffa leaves. It could be included in diet to improve micronutrient intake which is a major problem in Ghana.
ADEYEYE, E. I. & AYE, P. A. 2005. Chemical composition and the effect of salts on the food properties of Triticum durum whole meal flour. Pak. J. Nutr, 4, 187-196.
AIYESANMI, A. & OGUNTOKUN, M. 1996. Nutrient composition of Dioclea reflexa seed: An underutilized edible legume. Rivista Italiana delle Sostanze Grasse, 73, 521-523.
AKPANYUNG, E. 2005. Proximate and mineral element composition of bouillon cubes produced in Nigeria. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 45, 327-329.
ALI, A. 2009. Proximate and mineral composition of the marchubeh (Asparagus officinalis). World Dairy and Food Science, 4, 142-149.
ANTIAL, B., AKPANZ, E., OKONL, P. & UMORENL, I. 2006. Nutritive and Anti-Nutritive Evaluation of Sweet Potatoes. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 5, 166-168.
AOAC 2000. Official methods of Analysis. 17th Edition, Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington DC.
ASAOLU, S. & ASAOLU, M. 2010. Trace metal distribution in Nigerian leafy vegetables. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 9, 91-92.
CHAMP, M. M.-J. 2002. Non-nutrient bioactive substances of pulses. British Journal of Nutrition, 88, 307-319.
CHEGE, P., KURIA, E., KIMIYWE, J. & NYAMBAKA, H. 2014. Retention of ?-Carotene, iron and zinc in solar dried amaranth leaves in Kajiado County, Kenya.
DIET, W. 2003. nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseases. Report of a joint WHO/FAO expert consultation. WHO Technical report series, 916, 34-8.
DOWNEY, P. A. & SIEGEL, M. I. 2006. Bone biology and the clinical implications for osteoporosis. Physical therapy, 86, 77-91.
DUKE, J. A. 1983. Handbook of energy crops.
EJOH, A. R., MBIAPO, F. T. & FOKOU, E. 1996. Nutrient composition of the leaves and flowers ofColocasia esculenta and the fruits ofSolanum melongena. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition (Formerly Qualitas Plantarum), 49, 107-112.
ELISHA, G. O., ARNOLD, O. M., CHRISTIAN, U. & HUYSKENS-KEIL, S. 2016. Postharvest treatments of African leafy vegetables for food security in Kenya: a review. African Journal of Horticultural Science, 9.
EMELIKE, N. & EBERE, C. 2016. Effect of Drying Techniques of Moringa Leaf on the Quality of Chin-Chin Enriched with Moringa Leaf Powder. IOSR Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology (IOSRJESTFT), 10, 65-70.
FULLERTON, M., KHATIWADA, J., JOHNSON, J. U., DAVIS, S. & WILLIAMS, L. L. 2011. Determination of antimicrobial activity of sorrel (Hibiscus sabdariffa) on Esherichia coli O157: H7 isolated from food, veterinary, and clinical samples. Journal of medicinal food, 14, 950-956.
GQAZA, M., NJUME, C., GODUKA, I. & GRACE, G. 2013. The proximate composition of S. nigrum plant-leaves consumed in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. International Proceedings of Chemical, Biological and Environmental Engineering, 27-28.
HANIF, R., IQBAL, Z., IQBAL, M., HANIF, S. & RASHEED, M. 2006. Use of vegetables as nutritional food: role in human health. Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science, 1, 18-20.
HASSAN, L. & UMAR, K. 2006. Nutritional value of Balsam Apple (Momordica balsamina L.) leaves. Pak. J. Nutr, 5, 522-529.
HASSAN, L., UMAR, K. & UMAR, Z. 2007. Antinutritive factors in Tribulus terrestris (Linn) leaves and predicted calcium and zinc bioavailability. J. Trop. Biosci, 7, 33-36.
HOUSTON, M. C. & HARPER, K. J. 2008. Potassium, magnesium, and calcium: their role in both the cause and treatment of hypertension. The Journal of Clinical Hypertension, 10, 3-11.
ILICH, J. Z. & KERSTETTER, J. E. 2000. Nutrition in bone health revisited: a story beyond calcium. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 19, 715-737.
ISLAM, A., JAMINI, T., ISLAM, A. & SABINA, Y. 2016. Roselle: a functional food with high nutritional and medicinal values. Fundamental and Applied Agriculture, 1, 44-49.
JIMOH, F., ADEDAPO, A., ALIERO, A., KODURU, S. & AFOLAYAN, A. 2010. Evaluation of the polyphenolic, nutritive and biological activities of the acetone, methanol and water extracts of Amaranthus asper. The Open Complementary Medicine Journal, 2, 7-14.
KRIS-ETHERTON, P. M., HECKER, K. D., BONANOME, A., COVAL, S. M., BINKOSKI, A. E., HILPERT, K. F., GRIEL, A. E. & ETHERTON, T. D. 2002. Bioactive compounds in foods: their role in the prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer. The American journal of medicine, 113, 71S.
KWENIN, W., WOLLI, M. & DZOMEKU, B. 2011. Assessing the nutritional value of some African indigenous green leafy vegetables in Ghana. Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences, 10, 1300-1305.
LO, C. W., HUANG, H. P., LIN, H. M., CHIEN, C. T. & WANG, C. J. 2007. Effect of Hibiscus anthocyanins?rich extract induces apoptosis of proliferating smooth muscle cell via activation of P38 MAPK and p53 pathway. Molecular nutrition & food research, 51, 1452-1460.
MORTON, J. 1987. Fruits of warm climate (1987). Published by Julia F. Morton, 20534 SW 92 Ct. Miami, FL. 33189. ISBN: 0-9610184-1-0, Distributed by Creative Resource Systems. Inc. Box, 890.
MURIUKI, E. N., SILA, D. N. & ONYANGO, A. 2014. Nutritional diversity of leafy amaranth species grown in Kenya. Journal of Applied Biosciences, 79, 6818-6825.
OJEZELE, M. O., AGUNBIADE, S. O. & ADEOSUN, A. M. 2013. Screenning of extracts ofHibiscus sabdariffa andAzardirachta indica forbioactive compounds. International Journal of Traditional and Herbal Medicine, 1, 153-158.
ONI, M. O., OGUNGBITE, O. C. & AKINDELE, A. 2015. The effect of different drying methods on some common Nigerian edible botanicals. IJARB, 1, 15-22.
ONOJA, I. U. 2014. The effect of different processing methods on the proximate, ?-carotene and ascorbate composition of fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) leaves and its product, the leaf curd. International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences, 3, 404-410.
ONYENEKWE, P., AJANI, E., AMEH, D. & GAMANIEL, K. 1999. Antihypertensive effect of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) calyx infusion in spontaneously hypertensive rats and a comparison of its toxicity with that in Wistar rats. Cell Biochemistry and Function, 17, 199-206.
OWULADE, M., EGHIANRUWA, K. & DARAMOLA, F. 2004. Effects of aqueous extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyces and ocimun gratissimum leaves on interstinal transit in rats. African Journal of Biomedical Research, 7.
OWUSU, D., ELLIS, W. O. & ODURO, I. 2008. Nutritional potential of two leafy vegetables: Moringa oleifera and Ipomoea batatas leaves.
PATRICIA, O., ZOUE, L., MEGNANOU, R.-M., DOUE, R. & NIAMKE, S. 2014. Proximate composition and nutritive value of leafy vegetables consumed in Northern Cote d'Ivoire. European Scientific Journal, 10.
RAMSUMAIR, A., MLAMBO, V. & LALLO, C. H. 2014. Effect of drying method on the chemical composition of leaves from four tropical tree species. Trop Agric, 91, e85.
SCHLEMMER, U., FRØLICH, W., PRIETO, R. M. & GRASES, F. 2009. Phytate in foods and significance for humans: food sources, intake, processing, bioavailability, protective role and analysis. Molecular nutrition & food research, 53, S330-S375.
STOLTZFUS, R. J. & DREYFUSS, M. L. 1998. Guidelines for the use of iron supplements to prevent and treat iron deficiency anemia, Ilsi Press Washington^ eDC DC.
TAIGA, A., SULEIMAN, M., AINA, D., SULE, W. & ALEGE, G. 2008. Proximate analysis of some dry season vegetables in Anyigba, Kogi State, Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology, 7.
THOMAS, A. O. & OYEDIRAN, O. E. 2008. Nutritional importance and micronutrient potentials of two non-conventional indigenous green leafy vegetables from Nigeria. Agric. J, 3, 362-365.
TURAN, M., KORDALI, S., ZENGIN, H., DURSUN, A. & SEZEN, Y. 2003. Macro and micro mineral content of some wild edible leaves consumed in Eastern Anatolia. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B-Plant Soil Science, 53, 129-137.
VAN SOEST, P. V., ROBERTSON, J. & LEWIS, B. 1991. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. Journal of dairy science, 74, 3583-3597.
VULCAN, A., BRANDSTEDT, J., MANJER, J., JIRSTROM, K., OHLSSON, B. & ERICSON, U. 2015. Fibre intake and incident colorectal cancer depending on fibre source, sex, tumour location and Tumour, Node, Metastasis stage. Br J Nutr, 1-11.
YANG, R.-Y., CHANG, L.-C., HSU, J.-C., WENG, B. B., PALADA, M. C., CHADHA, M. & LEVASSEUR, V. 2006. Nutritional and functional properties of Moringa leaves–From germplasm, to plant, to food, to health. Moringa leaves: Strategies, standards and markets for a better impact on nutrition in Africa. Moringanews, CDE, CTA, GFU. Paris.
YANG, R.-Y. & KEDING, G. B. 2009. Nutritional contributions of important African indigenous vegetables. African indigenous vegetables in urban agriculture. Earthscan, London, 105-143.
How to Cite
Copyright for articles published in this journal is retained by the journal. Thus, copyright for material accepted for publication will transfer to the publisher of AJHS journal.